The Udzungwa Mountains are the largest block of an archipelago of moist forested islands known as the Eastern Arc. In contrast to most other E. African mountains – which are of volcanic origin – the Eastern Arc are not a mountain chain but 13 individual blocks of ancient crystalline rock. The Eastern Arc is a hotspot of threatened species with small geographic distributions. The region’s isolation, age and stable rainfall explains its high species diversity and endemism.
Elephants use a variety of habitats in the Udzungwa Mountains including low-elevation marshes, riverine forest, secondary forest, grassland, Aframomum (wild ginger)-dominated areas, high canopy forest, and bamboo and montane grassland on mountain tops.